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African Studies and African Country Resources @ Pitt: Writing & Citing

This guide provides selected high-quality resources on the global, political, economic, social and cultural aspects of the continent of Africa and its countries. It features individual country pages as well as sources searchable by topic or country.

A Helpful Guide

Citing Sources Using a Citation Manager

Keep track of all of your reference lists and bibliographies. Pitt's library resources work with citation management tools and allow you to import citations from sources like PITTCat+ and article databases. 

Helpful Endnote User's Guide

Citing Sources

Correctly citing information is an essential skill for any academic researcher. Our Major Citation Styles guide provides links to several online style guides covering the basics of correctly citing your sources.

It's often best to consult the official style guides when in doubt.  Most ULS libraries will have copies of such popular citation style guides as the American Psychological Association, the Modern Language Association, or the Chicago Manual of Style.

Sample Citations

For links to other  brief online sources which guide you through correctly citing information see the link below or use the "Use the Libraries" tab, then select "Help Sheets and Tutorials." Under "User Guides" select "Citing Sources."


Journal Article - Chicago/Turabian in the Author/Date Style [preferred in Economics, and some other sciences]

Brandt, Loren, Debin Ma, and Thomas G. Rawski. 2014. "From Divergence to Convergence: Reevaluating the History behind China's Economic Boom." Journal Of Economic Literature 52, no. 1: 45-123. EconLit, EBSCOhost (accessed January 11, 2016).

[The author-date style has long been used by those in the physical, natural, and social sciences. In this system, sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and date of publication. The short citations are amplified in a list of references, where full bibliographic information is provided.]


Other Citation Styles:

Journal Article - Chicago/Turabian in the - Notes/Bibliography Style [preferred by the Humanities]

Platt, Rutherford H. "The Humane Megacity." Environment 51, no. 4 (September 2009): 46-59. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost  (accessed February 7, 2014).

[The notes and bibliography style is preferred by many in the humanities, including those in literature, history, and the arts. This style presents bibliographic information in notes and, often, a bibliography.]


Journal Article - MLA: 

Platt, Rutherford H. "The Humane Megacity." Environment 51.4 (2009): 46-59.  Academic Search Premier. Web. 7 Feb. 2014.

Journal Article - APA: 

Platt, R. H. (2009). The Humane Megacity. Environment 51(4), 46-59.


Please be aware that plagiarism is a major concern for the University community. Students' written work must be their own.  When using ideas that are not your own in your writing, you must cite those ideas.

Proper citations are a critical component of avoiding plagiarism, but there is more to watch out for.  Have a look at the library's tutorial, "Avoiding Plagiarism," then please ask a librarian or a professor if you have any more questions about plagiarism.

Putting it all together

Organizing your research and putting your ideas down on paper can be difficult.  You can get writing help at the Writing Center.

Writing Centers

Need someone to review your paper? Visit the Writing Center or Academic Success Center on your campus.