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Course & Subject Guides

Indigenous and Native Peoples of Turtle Island (North America) - Bradford Campus

This guide provides access to a selected list of materials pertaining to the Indigenous and Native Peoples of North America

European Colonization and US Policy

This history framework is organized by the chronological order of European colonization and the policy created by the United States' government and its citizens toward Native Americans. The following time periods and United States policies constitute this framework.

Pre-Columbian history

1493 - 1778     Colonization: Doctrine of Discovery (Destruction)

1783 - 1887     Removal, genocide, & reservations

1887 - 1934     Allotment, boarding schools, & forced assimilation

1934 - 1946     Tribal reorganization

1946 - 1961     Termination & urban relocation

1961 - 1980s   Self-determination

1980s- pres.    Tribal sovereignty & self-governance

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Painting by Carson Waterman

photo of carson waterman's painting of man in canoe on the Allegheny River

Painting by Carson Waterman, member of the Snipe Clan, Seneca Nation of Indians. Painting, Hanley Library, first floor.

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