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Instructors often ask students to find "scholarly," "academic," or "peer reviewed" sources of information for their research. These terms all refer to the same type of information – sources based on in-depth research, and are considered higher in quality and more reliable for your research.
These sources can range from chapters within books or entire books, or journal articles, but all have common characteristics that can help you recognize that type of information:
Produced by experts or researchers in a specialized field or discipline.
Purpose is to present new or unpublished research.
Articles reviewed by experts for scholarly content or quality, or
Written using formal language and structure: abstract, literature review, methodology, results, conclusion, footnotes, endnotes and/or bibliography.
Articles always cite source information.
May include tables or graphs to support research.
Evaluate your Results and Sources: Use the PROVEN model: purpose, relevance, objectivity, verifiability, expertise, and newness
Strategies for Evaluating Sources: Abbreviated P.R.O.V.E.N.
Use the P.R.O.V.E.N. Source Evaluation Processto help you determine whether the sources you find are credible and appropriate choices for your particular research purpose. The process of evaluating a source includes examining the source itself and examining other sources by:
Checking for previous work. Has someone already fact-checked this source?
Finding the original source. Who originally published the information and why?
Reading laterally. What do other people say about this publication and author?
Circling back. How can you revise your original search to yield better results?
Checking your own emotions. Is your own bias affecting your evaluation?1
The questions below will help you think critically during the source evaluation process:
Purpose: How and why the source was created. Why does this information exist, why is it in this form (book, article, website, etc.), and who is the intended audience? Is the purpose clear?
Relevance: The value of the source for your needs. How useful is this source in answering your question, supporting your argument, or adding to your knowledge? Is the type and content of the source appropriate for your assignment?
Objectivity: The reasonableness and completeness of the information. How thorough and balanced is this source? Does it present fact or opinion? How well do its creators acknowledge their point of view, represent other points of view fully, and critique them professionally?
Verifiability: The accuracy and truthfulness of the information. How well do the creators of this source support their information with factual evidence, identify and cite their sources, and accurately represent information from other sources? Can you find the original source(s) of the information or verify facts in other sources? What do experts say about the topic?
Expertise: The authority of the authors and the source. Who created this source and what education and/or professional or personal experience makes them authorities on the topic? How was the source reviewed before publication? Do other experts cite this source or otherwise acknowledge the authority of its creators?
Newness: The age of the information. Does your topic require current information? How up-to-date is this source and the information within it?