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Public Speaking - Johnstown Campus: Citing Sources

A guide to print, electronic, and Internet resources available for Public Speaking students.

Citation Builders

These are sites that will help you "build" citations. They're pretty accurate, but be sure to cover your bases by comparing the citations against those in the style manual.

Citing Sources Using a Citation Manager

Keep track of all of your reference lists and bibliographies. Pitt's library resources work with citation management tools and allow you to import citations from sources like PITTCat+ and article databases. 

Citing Sources in Speeches

Your professor should let you know how much citation information you will need to include with your speeches. Just like in written papers, anytime you cite facts or statistics or quote another person's words and/or ideas, you need to provide proper credit. Here are a few examples:

A direct quote - since you've included a direct quotation in your speech, you need to provide the source of the quotation:

"As John W. Bobbitt said in the December 22, 1993, edition of the Denver Post, 'Ouch!'" In this case, you have included a direct quotation and provided the source of the quotation.

A statistic - even if you haven't directly quoted someone, you still need to provide information on where you found the data you are reporting:

 "After the first week of the 1995 baseball season, attendance was down 13.5% from 1994. This statistic appeared in the May 7, 1995, edition of the Denver Post."


Citation Style Manuals

The most recent editions of various style manuals are on reserve at the Owen Library Circulation Desk. The library also has several other books in the general collection that may help you with writing citations. Do a search in PITTCat+ for the style manual required for your class and narrow the search to Johnstown campus.

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