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Citation Styles: APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian, IEEE: Turabian 9th

Need help with formatting citations? Use this brief guide to five major styles.

Books on Turabian Citing

Online Chicago Citation Resources

What is Turabian Style?

Based on Kate L. Turabian’s Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, Turabian citation style presents two basic documentation systems, notes-bibliography style (or simply bibliography style) and author-date style (previously called parenthetical citations–reference list style). These styles are essentially the same as those presented in The Chicago Manual of Style with slight modifications for the needs of student writers. It is always a good idea to double-check the style guide or official online resources; do not rely on these examples for formatting such as indents.

Notes/Bibliography style is used widely in literature, history, and the arts. This style presents bibliographic information in footnotes or endnotes and, usually, a bibliography.

Material

Note

Bibliographic Entry

Books in print

1. Wendy Doniger, Splitting the Difference (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999), 65.

Doniger, Wendy. Splitting the Difference. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.

An article in a print journal

8. John Maynard Smith, “The Origin of Altruism,” Nature 393 (1998): 639.

Smith, John Maynard. “The Origin of Altruism.” Nature 393 (1998): 639–40.

An article in an electronic journal

33. Campbell Brown. "Consequentialize This," Ethics 121, no. 4 (July 2011): 751, http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/660696.

Brown, Campbell. "Consequentialize This." Ethics 121, no. 4 (July 2011): 749-71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/660696.

A website

11. "Privacy Policy,” Privacy & Terms, Google, last modified April 17, 2017, https://www.google.com/policies/privacy/.

Google. “Privacy Policy.” Privacy & Terms. Last modified April 17, 2017. https://www.google.com/policies/privacy/.

 

Author-date style has long been used in the physical, natural, and social sciences. In this system, sources are briefly cited in parentheses in the text by author’s last name and date of publication. The parenthetical citations are amplified in a list of references, where full bibliographic information is provided.

Material

Parenthetical  Citation

Reference List

Books in print

(Doniger 1999, 65)

Doniger, Wendy. 1999. Splitting the Difference. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

An article in a print journal

(Smith 1998, 639)

Smith, John Maynard. 1998. "The Origin of Altruism." Nature 393: 639–40.

An article in an electronic journal

(Kiser 2011, 340)

Kiser, Lisa J. 2011. "Silencing the Lambs: Economics, Ethics, and Animal Life in Medieval Franciscan Hagiography." Modern Philology 108, no. 3 (February): 323-42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/658052.

A website

(Google 2017)

Google. 2017. “Privacy Policy.” Privacy & Terms. Last modified April 17, 2017. https://www.google.com/policies/privacy/.

(Sources: Turabian Guide website;  A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses and Dissertations, 9th ed.)