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Citation Styles: APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian, IEEE: APA 6th Edition

Need help with formatting citations? Use this brief guide to five major styles.

Books on APA Citing

Writing Centers

Need someone to review your paper? Visit the Writing Center or Academic Success Center on your campus.

What is APA Style?

APA (American Psychological Association) Style originated in 1929, when a group of psychologists, anthropologists, and business managers convened and sought to establish a simple set of procedures, or style rules, that would codify the many components of scientific writing to increase the ease of reading comprehension.

As with other editorial styles, APA Style consists of rules or guidelines that a publisher observes to ensure clear and consistent presentation of written material. It concerns uniform use of such elements as selection of headings, tone, and length, punctuation and abbreviations, presentation of numbers and statistics, construction of tables and figures, citation of references, and many other elements that are a part of a manuscript. (Source: Official APA website)

In-text Citation with APA

The APA style calls for three kinds of information to be included in in-text citations. The author's last name and the work's date of publication must always appear, and these items must match exactly the corresponding entry in the references list. The third kind of information, the page number, appears only in a citation to a direct quotation.

....(Crockatt, 1995).

Direct quote from the text

"The potentially contradictory nature of Moscow's priorities surfaced first in its policies towards East Germany and Yugoslavia," (Crockatt, 1995, p. 1).

Major Citations for a Reference List/Bibliography

Note: All second and third lines in the APA Bibliography should be indented.

Material Type

Reference List/Bibliography

A book in print

Baxter, C. (1997). Race equality in health care and education. Philadelphia: Ballière Tindall.

A book chapter, print version

Haybron, D. M. (2008). Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 17-43). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

An eBook

Millbower, L. (2003). Show biz training: Fun and effective business training techniques from the worlds of stage, screen, and song. Retrieved from http://www.amacombooks.org/

An article in a print journal

Alibali, M. W. (1999). How children change their minds: Strategy change can be gradual or abrupt. Developmental Psychology, 35, 127-145.

An article in a journal without DOI

Carter, S., & Dunbar-Odom, D. (2009). The converging literacies center: An integrated model for writing programs. Kairos: A Journal of Rhetoric, Technology, and Pedagogy, 14(1), 38-48. Retrieved from http://kairos.technorhetoric.net/

An article in a journal with DOI

Gaudio, J. L., & Snowdon, C. T. (2008). Spatial cues more salient than color cues in cotton-top tamarins (saguinus oedipus) reversal learning. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 122, 441-444. doi: 10.1037/0735-7036.122.4.441

Websites - professional or personal sites

The World Famous Hot Dog Site. (1999, July 7). Retrieved January 5, 2008, from http://www.xroads.com/~tcs/hotdog/hotdog.html

Websites - online government publications

U.S. Department of Justice. (2006, September 10). Trends in violent victimization by age, 1973-2005. Retrieved from http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/glance/vage.htm

Emails (cited in-text only)

According to preservationist J. Mohlhenrich (personal communication, January 5, 2008).

Mailing Lists (listserv)

Stein, C.(2006, January 5).  Chessie rescue - Annapolis, MD [Message posted to Chessie-L electronic mailing list]. Retrieved from  http://chessie-l-owner@lists.best.com

Radio and TV episodes - from library databases

DeFord, F. (Writer). (2007, August 8). Beyond Vick: Animal cruelty for sport [Television series episode]. In NPR (Producer), Morning Edition. Retrieved from Academic OneFile database.

Radio and TV episodes - from website

Sepic, M. (Writer). (2008). Federal prosecutors eye MySpace bullying case [Television series episode]. In NPR (Producer), All Things Considered. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/

Film Clips from website

Kaufman, J.C. (Producer), Lacy, L. (Director), & Hawkey, P. (Writer). (1979). Mean Joe Greene [video file]. Retrieved from http://memory.loc.gov/mbrs/ccmp/meanjoe_01g.ram

Film Greene, C. (Producer), del Toro, G.(Director). (2015). Crimson peak [Motion picture]. United States: Legendary Pictures.

Photograph (from book, magazine or webpage)

Close, C. (2002). Ronald. [photograph]. Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY. Retrieved from http://www.moma.org/collection/object.php?object_id=108890

Artwork - from library database

Clark, L. (c.a. 1960's). Man with Baby. [photograph]. George Eastman House, Rochester, NY. Retrieved from ARTstor

Artwork - from website

Close, C. (2002). Ronald. [photograph]. Museum of Modern Art, New York. Retrieved from http://www.moma.org/collection/browse_results.php?
object_id=108890

Online APA Citation Resources

DOI and URL Flowchart

In order to simplify when to use a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and a URL (Uniform Resource Locator) in your citations, APA published this flow chart.

(Click on image to enlarge)