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Course & Subject Guides
Key Declarations in Support of OA
Budapest Open Access Initiative
In 2001, the Open Society Institute (OSI) held a meeting in Budapest, Hungary, to foster progress in making research articles in all academic fields freely available on the Internet. Those gathered produced the Budapest Open Access Initiative Declaration, one of the major milestones of the Open Access movement.
Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities
Created at a meeting in Berlin, Germany, in 2003, this declaration This declaration states that the Internet has fundamentally changed “the practical and economic realities of distributing scientific knowledge and cultural heritage.”
Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing
This statement was conceived in 2003 in Bethesda, Maryland, United States. The statement urges any entity or person involved in the production or promotion of scientific research to disseminate the findings through Open Access publishing.
Principles for Emerging Systems of Scholarly Publishing (a.k.a. the Tempe Principles)
The "Tempe Principles" were developed as a result of a meeting held in Tempe, Arizona, on March 2-4, 2000. The meeting was held to facilitate discussion among the various academic stakeholders in the scholarly publishing process and to build consensus on a set of principles that could guide the transformation of the scholarly publishing system.