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Course & Subject Guides

Citation Styles: APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian, IEEE: MLA 8th Edition

Need help with formatting citations? Use this brief guide to five major styles.

Examples of MLA Style

In-text Citation

Material Type

In-text Citation

Author's name in text

Magny develops this argument (67-69).

Author's name in reference

This argument has been developed elsewhere (Magny 67-69).

Two authors' names in reference

The most notorious foreign lobby in Washington is the "Sugar Mafia" (Howe and Trott 134).

Quotation found in indirect or "secondhand" source

The philosopher Alain states that "admiration is not pleasure but a kind of attention. . ." (qtd. in Magny 66).

 

Creating a Works Cited Page

With MLA style, you must include a Works Cited page at the end of your paper. A Works Cited page is an alphabetical listing of the resources cited in your paper. Below are some examples of MLA style citations. Note: Some instructors may require access dates for websites or other pieces of information. Please check with your instructor if you have any questions.

Material Type

Works Cited

Book in print

Card, Claudia. The Atrocity Paradigm: A Theory of Evil. Oxford UP, 2005.

eBook 

Gaither, Milton. Homeschool: An American History. Palgrave Macmillan, 2017. SpringerLink, doi-org.pitt.idm.oclc.org/10.1057/978-1-349-95056-0.

An article in a print journal

Doggart, Julia. "Minding the Gap: Realizing Our Ideal Community Writing Assistance Program." The Community Literacy Journal, vol. 2, no. 1, 2007, pp. 71-80. 

An article in an electronic journal

Sherrard-Johnson, Cherene. "'A Plea for Color': Nella Larsen's Iconography of the Mulatta." American Literature, vol. 76, no. 4, 2004, pp. 833-869, doi: 10.1215/00029831-76-4-833.

A encyclopedia entry

“Patanjali.” Benét’s Reader’s Encyclopedia, edited by Bruce Murphy, 4th ed., HarperCollins Publishers, 1996, p. 782.

A government publication

United States, Federal Maritime Commission. Hawaiian Trade Study: An Economic Analysis. Government Printing Office, 1978. 

An interview you conducted

Brandt, Deborah. Personal interview. 28 May 2008.

(Note: List the interview under the name of the interviewee)

A film/DVD

Note: This depends on the focus of your work. Please see the MLA Style blog for a  detailed explanation.

A Page on a Website with no author

"Stunning Lakeside View on Lake Erie." VisitPA, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 7 June 2018, www.visitpa.com/article/stunning-lakeside-views-lake-erie.

A Page on a Website with an author

Del Castillo, Inigo. "How Not to Kill Your Houseplants, According to Botanists." Apartment Therapy, 29 Jan. 2020, www.apartmenttherapy.com/houseplant-tips-botanists-36710191.

Artwork - from website

Sherald, Amy. Former First Lady, Michelle Obama. 2018. National Portrait Gallery, npg.si.edu/object/npg_NPG.2018.15.

Online MLA Citation Resources

Books on MLA Citing

Writing Centers

Need someone to review your paper? Visit the Writing Center or Academic Success Center on your campus.

What is MLA Style?

MLA (Modern Language Association) style for documentation is widely used in the humanities, especially in writing on language and literature. MLA style features brief parenthetical citations in the text keyed to an alphabetical list of works cited that appears at the end of the work. (Source: Official MLA website)

mla core elements

Core Elements

Each entry in the list of works cited is composed of facts common to most works—the MLA core elements. They are assembled in a specific order.

Containers

The concept of containers is crucial to MLA style. When the source being documented forms part of a larger whole, the larger whole can be thought of as a container that holds the source. For example, a short story may be contained in an anthology. The short story is the source, and the anthology is the container.

Rationale

The Modern Language Association, the authority on research and writing, takes a fresh look at documenting sources in the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook. Works are published today in a dizzying range of formats. A book, for example, may be read in print, online, or as an e-book--or perhaps listened to in an audio version. On the Web, modes of publication are regularly invented, combined, and modified. Previous editions of the MLA Handbook provided separate instructions for each format, and additional instructions were required for new formats. In this groundbreaking new edition of its best-selling handbook, the MLA recommends instead one universal set of guidelines, which writers can apply to any type of source.  Shorter and redesigned for easy use, the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook guides writers through the principles behind evaluating sources for their research. It then shows them how to cite sources in their writing and create useful entries for the works-cited list.  More than just a new edition, this is a new MLA style. (Source: MLA)

Understanding MLA Style (8th edition, 2016) [long]

From Kyle Stedman, assistant professor of English at Rockford University.

8th Edition Changes Explained [short]

From Marquette University Libraries