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Animal Behavior - Johnstown Campus: Citing Sources - APA 6th Edition

A guide to resources for Dr. Dahlin's Bio 1172 Animal Behavior course

Books on APA Citing

Writing Centers

Need someone to review your paper? Visit the Writing Center or Academic Success Center on your campus.

What is APA Style?

APA (American Psychological Association) Style originated in 1929, when a group of psychologists, anthropologists, and business managers convened and sought to establish a simple set of procedures, or style rules, that would codify the many components of scientific writing to increase the ease of reading comprehension.

As with other editorial styles, APA Style consists of rules or guidelines that a publisher observes to ensure clear and consistent presentation of written material. It concerns uniform use of such elements as selection of headings, tone, and length, punctuation and abbreviations, presentation of numbers and statistics, construction of tables and figures, citation of references, and many other elements that are a part of a manuscript. (Source: Official APA website)

In-text Citation with APA

The APA style calls for three kinds of information to be included in in-text citations. The author's last name and the work's date of publication must always appear, and these items must match exactly the corresponding entry in the references list. The third kind of information, the page number, appears only in a citation to a direct quotation.

....(Crockatt, 1995).

Direct quote from the text

"The potentially contradictory nature of Moscow's priorities surfaced first in its policies towards East Germany and Yugoslavia," (Crockatt, 1995, 1).

Major Citations for a Reference List/Bibliography

Note: All second and third lines in the APA Bibliography should be indented.

Material Type

Reference List/Bibliography

A book in print

Baxter, C. (1997). Race equality in health care and education. Philadelphia: Ballière Tindall.

An article in a print journal

Alibali, M. W. (1999). How children change their minds: Strategy change can be gradual or abrupt. Developmental Psychology, 35, 127-145.

An article in a journal without DOI

Carter, S., & Dunbar-Odom, D. (2009). The converging literacies center: An integrated model for writing programs. Kairos: A Journal of Rhetoric, Technology, and Pedagogy, 14(1). Retrieved from http://kairos.technorhetoric.net/

An article in a journal with DOI

Gaudio, J. L., & Snowdon, C. T. (2008). Spatial cues more salient than color cues in cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) reversal learning. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 122, 441-444. doi: 10.1037/0735-7036.122.4.441

DOI and URl Flowchart

In order to simplify when to use a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and a URL (Uniform Resource Locator) in your citations, APA published this flow chart.

Online APA Citation Resources