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Course & Subject Guides

Citation Searching and Bibliometric Measures: SNIP

A discussion on topics such as the h-index, Eigenfactor, Impact Factor, Journal Citation Reports, and other tools.

Paper on SNIP

Technical Notes

SNIP is just one type of measure created by Moed and his team.

Look in this PDF for the descriptions of the types of data represented in the Centre for Science and Technology Studies (CWTS) Journal Indicators at Leiden University.

What is SNIP?

Created by Professor Henk F. Moed at Centre for Science and Technology Studies (CWTS), University of Leiden, Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) measures contextual citation impact by weighting citations based on the total number of citations in a subject field. The impact of a single citation is given higher value in subject areas where citations are less likely, and vice versa.

SNIP in 2009

  • Measures contextual citation impact by ‘normalizing’ citation values
  • Takes a research field’s citation frequency into account
  • Considers immediacy - how quickly a paper is likely to have an impact in a given field
  • Accounts for how well the field is covered by the underlying database
  • Calculates without use of a journal’s subject classification to avoid delimitation
  • Counters any potential for editorial manipulation

SNIP was revised in 2012 to include these indicators

  • P. The number of publications of a source in the past three years.
  • RIP. The raw impact per publication, calculated as the number of citations given in the present year to publications in the past three years divided by the total number of publications in the past three years. RIP is fairly similar to the well-known journal impact factor. Like the journal impact factor, RIP does not correct for differences in citation practices between scientific fields.
  • SNIP. The source normalized impact per publication, calculated as the number of citations given in the present year to publications in the past three years divided by the total number of publications in the past three years. The difference with RIP is that in the case of SNIP citations are normalized in order to correct for differences in citation practices between scientific fields. Essentially, the longer the reference list of a citing publication, the lower the value of a citation originating from that publication. A detailed explanation is offered in our scientific paper.
  • % self cit. The percentage of self citations of a source, calculated as the percentage of all citations given in the present year to publications in the past three years that originate from the source itself.

Example of CWTS Journal Indicators 2013

Journals in Literature and Literary Theory ordered by SNIP.

Example of CWTS Journal Indicators in 2009

Journals in the Education field from 1999 sorted by SNIP.