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Course & Subject Guides

Executive Doctorate of Business Administration - Pitt Online

This guide is intended to aid the students enrolled in the EDBA program at the Katz School of Business

Citation Guides

For additional help with the APA, Chicago, or MLA citation styles, see the links below.

Citing books and e-books (APA)


By one author

Drucker, P. (2011). Technology, management, and society.  Harvard Business Press.

By two authors

Wheeler, A. & Katz, J. (2011). Brand Atlas : Branding intelligence made visible.  Wiley.

By three to seven authors

Harrington, L.H., Boyson, S., & Corsi, T.M. (2011). X-SCM : the new science of X-treme supply chain management.  Routledge.

Article or Chapter in an Edited Book

Rao, A. (2010). Brand Alliances. In. B. Loken, R. Ahluwalia & M.J. Houston (Eds.), Brands and Brand Management. (pp. 43- 61). Routledge.


Dormeier, B. (2011.) Investing with volume analysis: identify, follow, and profit from trends. FT Press. Retrieved from Safari Tech Books Online

Citing Within the Paper

Within your reports and papers, you'll need to include in-text citations whenever you refer to outside sources or include charts or other visuals, in addition to your full reference list. This will allow your readers to easily trace back each piece of information to your credible source, thereby strengthening your argument.


Citing sources properly is necessary to demonstrate where your information is coming from. It also helps keep you from accidentally plagiarizing.

Be sure to check with your instructor to see what citation format you should be using.

Learn more about how citations help you reference information so others can locate it.

Citation Examples

Below are examples of how to cite some popular business resources, based upon our interpretation of the APA 7th edition rules.

Nexis Uni Annual Reports Statista Business Source Complete Global Market Information Database (GMID) / Passport / Euromonitor IBISWorld Mergent Online
Standard & Poor's Industry Survey Value Line 10-K  

Nexis Uni

Company information

Kraft Heinz Food Company (2020, August 19).  Hoover's Inc. Nexis Uni. 


Kanter, J. (2011, Dec 13). Google's Acquisition of Motorola Delayed. The New York Times. pp. B5. Nexis Uni.

Annual Reports

McDonald's Corporation. (2019). 2019 Annual Report.

Alcoa Inc. (2011). 2010 Annual report and Form 10-K.  MergentOnline.



Armstrong, M. (2020, June 4). UK government approval on the slide [Infographic]. Statista.

Business Source Complete

Company profiles

Datamonitor. (2011, May 6). Alcoa Inc. [company profile]. Business Source Complete.

Industry reports

Datamonitor. (2008). Organic food industry profile: United States. Business Source Complete.

Barnes Reports. (2012). U.S. ship & boat building industry. [industry report]. Business Source Complete.


Ritter, R. C. (2004). When Offshore Manufacturing Doesn't Make Sense. McKinsey Quarterly, 4, 124.  Business Source Complete.

Population data

U.S. Census Bureau. (2010). Pittsburgh city, Pennsylvania -- Profile of general population and housing characteristics: 2010. [table]. 2010 Demographic Profile Data. U.S. Census Bureau website

Economic Census

U.S. Census Bureau. (2007). Pennsylvania -- Economy-Wide Key Statistics: 2007. [table]. 2007 Economic Census. U.S. Census Bureau website

County Business Patterns

U.S. Census Bureau. (2009). Allegheny County, Pennsylvania --  Geography Area Series: County Business Patterns. [table]. 2009 Business Patterns. U.S. Census Bureau website

Global Market Information Database (GMID) / Passport / Euromonitor

Euromonitor. (2012). Market Sizes- Historic- Retail Value RSP- US$mm- Current Prices Year-on-Year Exchange Rates- Packaged Food. [Statistics]. Passport.

Euromonitor. (2011, Dec 1). Annual Study 2011: Generational Differences.  Passport.


Industry reports

Jones, A. (2011, June). Family clothing stores in the US.  IBISWorld.

Mergent Online

Mergent. (2011). Apple Inc. Company Financials. Mergent Online.

Standard & Poor Industry Survey

Standard & Poor's. (2007, November 29). Industry Surveys: Apparel & Footwear. New York: Standard & Poor's.

Value Line

Value Line. (2004, October 1). Sprint Corporation stock report. Value Line Investment Surveys 60(5): 737.  New York: Value Line, Inc.


H.J. Heinz Company. (2011, June 16). Form 10-K. Fiscal year ended April 27, 2011. Retrieved from SEC Edgar website