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Nonprofit Research @ Pitt: Writing & Citing

This guide supports those doing research related to nonprofits and strategic management in the public sector.

A Helpful Guide

Citing Sources

Correctly citing information is an essential skill for any academic researcher. Our Major Citation Styles guide provides links to several online style guides covering the basics of correctly citing your sources.

It's often best to consult the official style guides when in doubt.  Most ULS libraries will have copies of such popular citation style guides as the American Psychological Association, the Modern Language Association, or the Chicago Manual of Style.

Citing Guides

Most professors just want to see consistent citing in a single style but you should double-check to see if your professor has a preferred style.  To the right are examples of how to cite popular business and management resources in APA style.  If you would like more help with APA style or need to cite in Chicago or MLA, please see the links below.

Citing Sources Using a Citation Manager

Keep track of all of your reference lists and bibliographies. Pitt's library resources work with citation management tools and allow you to import citations from sources like PITTCat+ and article databases. 

Sample Citations

For links to other brief online sources which guide you through correctly citing information see the links below.

Examples:

Journal Article - MLA: 

Platt, Rutherford H. "The Humane Megacity." Environment 51.4 (2009): 46-59.  Academic Search Premier. Web. 7 Feb. 2012.

 

Journal Article - APA: 

Platt, R. H. (2009). The Humane Megacity. Environment 51(4), 46-59.

 

Journal Article - Chicago/Turabian: 

Platt, Rutherford H. "The Humane Megacity." Environment 51, no. 4 (September 2009): 46-59. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost  (accessed February 7, 2012).

Detailed Citation Examples in APA

Below are examples of how to cite some popular business resources. The examples are based on our interpretation of APA 6th edition rules.  If you take a look at other business resource citation guides, you will find that others interpret the rules differently.  You are welcome to follow other guides and their applications of APA rules if you think that makes the information easier to retrieve.  Just be consistent!

Academic LexisNexis

Annual Reports

Business Insights: Global

Business Source Complete

Census.gov

Datamonitor Reports

IBISWorld

Mergent Online

PASSPORT - the Global Market Information Database (GMID)

Standard & Poor's Industry Survey (S&P Industry Survey)

Thomson ONE

Value Line

10-K


Academic Lexis-Nexis

Company information

Hoover's Inc. (2012, March 6). H.J. Heinz Company. Hoover's Company Records - In-depth records. Retrieved from Academic Lexis-Nexis.

Disclosure Inc. (2011, Sept 6). H.J. Heinz Company. Disclosure SEC Database. Retrieved from Academic Lexis-Nexis.

Articles

Kanter, J. (2011, Dec 13). Google's Acquisition of Motorola Delayed. The New York Times. pp. B5. Retrieved from Academic Lexis-Nexis.


Annual Reports

Honda Motor Co. (2011). Annual report 2011. Retrieved from http://www.honda.com

Alcoa Inc. (2011). 2010 Annual report and Form 10-K.  Retrieved from MergentOnline.


Business Insights: Global

Company profiles

Gale Group. (2011). Facebook, Inc. [company profile]. Retrieved from Business Insights: Global.

Industry reports

Datamonitor. (2008, April 15). Global-Oil & Gas Exploration & Production. Datamonitor Industry Market Research. Retrieved from Business Insights: Global.

Company histories

Gale Group. (2008). Facebook, Inc. International directory of company histories. Retrieved from Business Insights: Global.

Articles

"Top social networking sites worldwide, 2007" (2007, November 1). Wall Street Journal, p. B3. Reproduced in Market share reporter 2009 . Retrieved from Business Insights: Global.

Encyclopedia

Gale Group. (2011). Social Media. Encyclopedia of emerging industries. Retrieved from Business Insights: Global.


Business Source Complete

Company profiles

Datamonitor. (2011, May 6). Alcoa Inc. [company profile]. Retrieved from Business Source Complete.

Industry reports

Datamonitor (2008). Organic Food Industry Profile: United States.  Retrieved from Business Source Complete.

Barnes Reports (2012). U.S. Ship & Boat Building Industry. [industry report]. Retrieved from Business Source Complete.

Articles

Ritter, R. C. (2004). When Offshore Manufacturing Doesn't Make Sense. McKinsey Quarterly, 4, 124. Retrieved from Business Source Complete.

 


Census.gov

Population data

U.S. Census Bureau. (2010). Pittsburgh city, Pennsylvania -- Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010. [table]. 2010 Demographic Profile Data. Retrieved from U.S. Census Bureau website http://www.census.gov.

Economic Census

U.S. Census Bureau. (2007). Pennsylvania -- Economy-Wide Key Statistics: 2007. [table]. 2007 Economic Census. Retrieved from U.S. Census Bureau website http://www.census.gov.

County Business Patterns

U.S. Census Bureau. (2009). Allegheny County, Pennsylvania --  Geography Area Series: County Business Patterns. [table]. 2009 Business Patterns. Retrieved from U.S. Census Bureau website http://www.census.gov.


Datamonitor Reports

Company profiles

Datamonitor. (2011, May 13). Bayerische Motoren Werke company profile. Retrieved from Business Source Complete.

Industry reports

Datamonitor (2008). Organic Food Industry Profile: United States.  Retrieved from Business Source Complete.


PASSPORT - the Global Market Information Database (GMID)

Euromonitor. (2012). Market Sizes- Historic- Retail Value RSP- US$mm- Current Prices- Year-on-Year Exchange Rates- Packaged Food. [Statistics]. Retrieved from Global Market Information Database.

Euromonitor. (2011, Dec 1). Annual Study 2011: Generational Differences. Retrieved from Global Market Information Database.


 IBISWorld

Industry reports

IBIS. (2011, June). Family clothing stores in the US. Retrieved from http://www.ibisworld.com/.


Mergent Online

Mergent. (2011). Apple Inc. Company Financials. Retrieved from http://www.mergentonline.com/


Standard & Poor's Industry Survey (S&P Industry Survey)

Standard & Poor's. (2007, November 29). Industry Surveys: Apparel & Footwear. New York: Standard & Poor's.


Thomson ONE

Oppenheimer & Co., Inc. "Analyst Day Provides Vision, Repositioning Requires a Longer-Term Perspective." October 23, 2010. Retrieved from Thomson Research/Investext.


Value Line

Value Line. (2004, October 1). Sprint Corporation stock report. Value Line Investment Surveys 60(5): 737.  New York: Value Line, Inc.


10-K

H.J. Heinz Company. (2011, June 16). Form 10-K. Fiscal year ended April 27, 2011. Retrieved from SEC Edgar website http://www.sec.gov.

Plagiarism

Please be aware that plagiarism is a major concern for the University community. Students' written work must be their own.  When using ideas that are not your own in your writing, you must cite those ideas.

Proper citations are a critical component of avoiding plagiarism, but there is more to watch out for.  Have a look at the library's tutorial, "Avoiding Plagiarism," then please ask a librarian or a professor if you have any more questions about plagiarism.

Citing Within the Paper

Within your reports and papers, you may be including charts, statistics and other information uncovered in your research.  In addition to your reference list at the end of the paper, it is important to include footnotes/endnotes or in-text citations for this information when you mention it.  This will allow your readers (such as your professor and TA's) to easily trace back each piece of information to your credible source, thereby strengthening your argument.

Citing books and e-books

Examples of how to cite books and e-books in APA 6th edition style

Books

By one author

Drucker, Peter (2011). Technology, management, and society. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Press.

By two authors

Wheeler, A. & Katz, J. (2011). Brand Atlas : Branding intelligence made visible. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

By three to seven authors

Harrington, L.H., Boyson, S., & Corsi, T.M. (2011). X-SCM : the new science of X-treme supply chain management. New York, NY: Routledge.

Article or Chapter in an Edited Book

Rao, A. (2010). Brand Alliances. In. B. Loken, R. Ahluwalia & M.J. Houston (Eds.), Brands and Brand Management. (pp. 43- 61). New York, NY: Routledge.

E-books

Dormeier, B. (2011.) Investing with volume analysis: identify, follow, and profit from trends. Upper Saddle River, NJ: FT Press. Retrieved from Safari Tech Books Online http://proquest.safaribooksonline.com

Writing Center Help

Organizing your research and putting your ideas down on paper can be difficult.  You can get writing help at the Writing Center.