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Citation Styles: APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian, IEEE: Home

Need help with formatting citations? Use this brief guide to five major styles.

Quick Links

Listed below are a few quick links to resources that will aid you in citing sources.

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Getting Started: How to use this guide

This LibGuide was designed to provide you with assistance in citing your sources when writing an academic paper.

There are different styles which format the information differently. In each tab, you will find descriptions of each citation style featured in this guide along with links to online resources for citing and a few examples.

What is a citation and citation style?

A citation is a way of giving credit to individuals for their creative and intellectual works that you utilized to support your research. It can also be used to locate particular sources and combat plagiarism. Typically, a citation can include the author's name, date, location of the publishing company, journal title, or DOI (Digital Object Identifer).

A citation style dictates the information necessary for a citation and how the information is ordered, as well as punctuation and other formatting.

How to do I choose a citation style?

There are many different ways of citing resources from your research. The citation style sometimes depends on the academic discipline involved. For example:

  • APA (American Psychological Association) is used by Education, Psychology, and Sciences
  • MLA (Modern Language Association) style is used by the Humanities
  • Chicago/Turabian style is generally used by Business, History, and the Fine Arts

*You will need to consult with your professor to determine what is required in your specific course.

Click the links below to find descriptions of each style along with a sample of major in-text and bibliographic citations, links to books in PITTCat+, online citation manuals, and other free online resources.

Writing Centers

Need someone to review your paper? Visit the Writing Center or Academic Success Center on your campus.

Credits

This research guide was created with the assistance of LaMonica Wiggins, MLIS Graduate Student, Hillman Library, University of Pittsburgh 2010-11 and updated by Katherine DeRusso, MLIS Graduate Student, Hillman Library, University of Pittsburgh 2010-11.